Without submitting COs, the plaintiff performed additional construction work and alleged that verbal authorization was given by the defendant engineer. He was not paid for the additional work and filed this breach of contract action. At trial, we established that the terms of the contract required submission of written COs before performing work; that failing to do so deprived the co-defendants of the opportunity to decrease the scope of the work; and that the request for additional funding was rightfully denied. The judge granted our request for a directed verdict.